In this lesson, I learned about the 2 panels and how they work. I also learned how Mac users can achieve the same compared to Windows.
For Mac users, the document will appear as an Application Frame, and if not preferred, head to the Window menu and deselect Application Frame. This will make a document a free-floating window which is how most Mac applications behave. Anytime you need to go to the Preferences dialog box, head to the Illustrator menu at the top of the screen, then Preferences.
To the left side is the tools panel where you can access different tools and mechanisms for your artwork. You can change the Tools panel from 2 columns to 1 by heading to the top left of the panel where you can see 2 little arrows, which can be clicked, causing the panel to collapse.
On the right side are the properties panels and the same thing can be done by clicking the arrows to expand the panel view. If you want the panel to be free-floating, just click and drag the panel tab onto the document, and can be placed back by clicking and dragging.
If you want to add more panels, simply go the the Windows menu and select any panel underneath. If you click on a panel that has already been selected, it will expand on its own.